Anthroponymic name: Surname
Therefore, identification or name of a person in the Hispanic tradition consists of: name (or just name, may be more than one) - last name and mother's maiden name, sorted by intercalation. That is, the surname of a person is the surname of his father's middle name a person is the surname of his mother, the third name is the maiden name of his father, the fourth name is the second of its mother, etc.
Thus a person has as many names as he or she likes and relates it to its ancestors, although the countries are generally allows only the registration of two surnames. Since 2008, Chilean law and since 1999 the Spanish used to change the order of names, thus allowing that, by mutual agreement of the parents, the surname precedes the father's mother.
The Portuguese used the same system, but the names are reversed (influence was rooted in the Canary Islands several centuries). This (enter last name first and then the father's mother) is given in both Portugal and Brazil. Meanwhile, in many countries only inherited the paternal surname. The surname of a woman traditionally changes upon marriage in some cultures, although there are few countries that are forcing change.
The use of surnames is very different among cultures. In particular the people of Tibet and often do not use Java name.